Variant Pharmaceuticals Has a New Name - ZyVersa Therapeutics, Inc.
Inflammasomes are important signaling complexes that play a critical role in innate immunity, the body’s first line of defense against foreign infectious organisms and cell damage. They also potentiate the adaptive immune response. Inflammasomes are molecular complexes comprised of three basic proteins:
In the presence of harmful pathogens or internal stressors, the protein components assemble into an inflammasome. Each of the sensor molecules respond to different stimuli, and create a unique inflammasome, which is named by the sensor molecule (i.e. NLRP3 Inflammasome).
The adaptor ASC, is associated with multiple inflammasomes as depicted below. Its role is to recruit procaspase 1 into the inflammasome. ASC is pivotal for activation and perpetuation of inflammation.
Inflammasomes activate the innate inflammatory response, as follows:
The adaptive inflammatory response is activated when the innate immune response is inadequate. It responds to a specific immune trigger (antigen) and has memory for that specific antigen for efficient response to future encounters with the antigen.
Through activation of cytokines, inflammasomes amplify T and B cell responses. IL-1β can act on lymphocytes in several ways including upregulating IL-2 receptor expression, prolonging survival of T cells, enhancing antibody production by B cells, and increasing B cell proliferation. IL-1β and IL-18 play a critical role in driving the differentiation and amplification of Th17 and Th1 cells, respectively.
Although the immune system is critical for health, excessive and/or chronic activation of the immune system can occur, including development of inflammation against the body’s own cells, resulting in immune-related inflammatory disorders. There are over 80 inflammatory disorders, including type 1 diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, and Crohn’s disease, which affect 5-7% o of the population in Western Societies.
Multiple inflammasomes are linked to each of numerous inflammatory disorders, as seen in the table below: